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【世界趣闻录】各个国家不一样的军训

来源: 新闻中心   作者: 郭秭含、万心怡  摄影:   编辑:郭秭含  发布时间:2020年10月07日  点击次数:

在这个秋高气爽的季节,我们又要迎来一年一度的军训啦!
我时常在想,难道其他国家的学校也会筹办军训活动么?
当然会呀!另外,各个国家因为其文化和地域差异,军训也是风格各异噢!
那接下来,让我们一起了解一下世界各国学生的军训方式吧!

再过几天,大一的同学们就要开始军训了。在我国,军训的目的是通过严格的军事训练提高学生的政治觉悟,激发爱国热情,培养艰苦奋斗,刻苦耐劳的坚强毅力和集体主义精神,增强国防观念和组织纪律性。
 In a few days, the freshmen students will start military training. The purpose of military training in China is to improve students' political awareness, inspire patriotic enthusiasm, cultivate strong perseverance and collective spirit of hard work and endurance, enhance the concept of national defense and organization and discipline.

“军训”最早可追溯至夏商时期的奴隶社会,以后各朝代都有过对学生实施军训的记载。据记载,在商代,由于诸侯间战争增多,统治者对军事训练日益重视,除了对正规军队进行训练外,还通过学校对各级贵族进行军事教育。
 The term "military training" can be traced as far back as the slave society of the Xia and Shang dynasties. It is recorded that in the Shang dynasty, as wars between vassals increased, the rulers paid increasing attention to military training, and in addition to training the regular army, they also provided military education to nobles at all levels through schools.

秦汉之时,学校军训则开始走下坡路了。儒家学术逐渐被奉为正统,军训的职能弱化为一种礼仪程式。
 During the Qin and Han Dynasties, military training in schools began to decline. Confucian scholarship was gradually accepted as orthodox, and the function of military training was reduced to a ceremonial procedure.

隋朝时,更是开始“偃武修文”大力削减武备,国家教育重点由学武转为修文,科举也开始成为主流。文、武分举后,文举不考武学,文人学子为谋取功名,无暇学习军事,军训渐渐被弃之不顾。
 During the Sui dynasty, the government began to "cease the martial arts and culture" and vigorously cut down on military preparations, and the focus of national education changed from learning martial arts to cultivating culture.After the Wen and Wu sub-college, the military training was gradually abandoned.

唐朝,军训被废止。到了宋朝,兴文教、抑武事的政策被推向高潮,武将地位被读书士子全面超。
 During the Tang Dynasty, military training was abolished . By the Song Dynasty, the policy of promoting education and suppressing martial affairs was pushed to a climax, and the status of military generals was overtaken by the scholarly student.

军训的重启是在1929年,其时,日本对中国虎视眈眈,军事教育重新受到重视。 “凡大学、高级中学及专门学校、大学预科并其它高等以上学校,除女生外均应以军事教育为必修科目”,“每年暑假期内,各校学生应受连续三星期之严格训练。
 Military training was restarted in 1929, and military education was given renewed attention. "Military education shall be a compulsory subject in all universities, upper secondary and specialized schools, preparatory schools and other institutions of higher education, except for girls.

提起军训,国人通常能联想到场景大概分为两种:即使是强迫症也赏心悦目的分列式,以及洗脑循环的正步踢踏交响曲。
 When it comes to military training, people can usually think of about two types of scenes: even obsessive-compulsive disorder is pleasing to the disaggregated form, and the positive kick symphony of brainwashing cycle.

而每年为新生祈愿更毒辣的阳光,已经成为信奉“有难同当”的学姐学长喜闻乐见的活动之一。
 Every year, an instructor praying for freshmen with more poisonous sunshine has become one of the favorite activities of seniors .

分列式和踢正步,看起来很能扬我军威,但重复着千百遍的简谐运动,除了汇报演出给领导看,到底有啥用啊?这种整齐划一的队列,其实是普鲁士人的大作。
 It looks like it can lift our military prestige, but it repeats the simple and harmonious movement thousands of times. What's the use except to report the performance to the leaders? This neat and uniform formation is actually a masterpiece of the Prussians.

想当年,欧洲军队刚装备火枪的时候,用黑火药发射出的弹丸射程近且精度差,为了达到满意的杀伤效果,军队必须齐刷刷地一排一排站,集体互相开火,形象地说,就是排队互相枪毙。
I think that when the European army was just equipped with muskets, the bullets fired with black gunpowder had a short range and poor accuracy. In order to achieve a satisfactory killing effect, the army had to brush the ground in rows and open fire at each other collectively. In image, it was to queue up to shoot each other.

为了提高威慑力,普鲁士军队还在阅兵中吸取了一种民间的流行舞蹈,它的特征是高抬腿与地面平行。这种行军方式不但能提神醒脑,梳理队列,还能制造出震撼大地的威慑音效。
 In order to improve deterrence, the Prussian army also drew a folk dance in the parade, which was characterized by high legs and parallel to the ground. This way of marching can not only refresh your mind and sort out the queue, but also create a deterrent sound effect that shocks the earth.

按英国历史学家诺尔曼·戴维斯的说法:“对于普鲁士的敌人来说,正步走象征着普鲁士士兵们不仅仅是身穿军服的农村小伙子,而是武艺超强的超人;对于整个世界来说,正步走象征着普鲁士不仅仅是个强国,而且是个高傲的强国。”
 According to the British historian Norman? Davis said: "For Prussia's enemies, the march symbolizes that Prussian soldiers are not only rural boys in military uniforms, but also super martial arts superman; for the whole world, marching symbolizes that Prussia is not only a powerful country, but also a proud power."

普鲁士击败法国完成德国统一后,德国军事教官风靡世界,并将这种齐刷刷的正步队列扩散到亚洲美洲诸多国家。严格的分列式能够强化集体意识,这一点十分具有吸引力。
 After Prussia defeated France to complete German reunification, German military instructors became popular all over the world and spread this swiping procession to many countries in Asia and the Americas. Strict disaggregated methods can strengthen collective consciousness, which is very attractive.

现在,让我们把视线投向美国。我惊奇地发现,美国大学新生没有军训! 虽然说美国大学生不需要军训,但是他们可以参加预备军官训练团,在训练团中受到培养。
 Now let's turn to America.I was surprised to find that there was no military training for freshmen in American universities! Although American college students do not need military training, they can participate in the ROTC and be trained in it.

在美国的大学中,设立军官训练团是美国军队培养军官的一种方式。想要加入这个训练团还不是一件简单的事,是有条件限制的。
 In American universities, the Officers' Training Corps is a way of training officers in the United States military. To join this training group is not a simple matter, but it is conditional.

如果你要申请入训练团,首先,你要有美国的绿卡,如果没有拿到绿卡,那基本跟美国军队无缘了。
 If you want to apply for the training corps, first of all, you have to have a GREEN card from the United States, and if you don't get a green card, you're basically barred from the U.S. military.

对这些申请参加训练的大学生,按照服役的条件进行资格测试,测试合格者才能够入。
 These college students who apply for training will be qualified according to the conditions of service, and only those who pass the test can be selected.

获得了训练团训练资格的大学生可以拿到一笔奖学金,但是他们必须顶起参加军训,而且要跟军方签订协议,毕业后就要到正规部队或者后备部队服役8年的合同。
 College students who qualify for the TRAINING corps receive a scholarship, but they must attend military training and sign an agreement with the military to serve eight years in regular or reserve forces after graduation.


看来美国军队的强大也不是没有原因的,每年都有大批大学生报名参加这个训练。
 It seems that American troops strong is not without reason, every year there are a large number of students enrolled in the training mission.

毕业之后,大批的优质人才直接送到军队,为军队服务,而且他们的训练跟中国还有所不同,不需要在大太阳下站军姿,美国军队更看重的是学员的实战能力。对学员来说,难度也是不容小觑的。
 After graduation, a large number of high-quality talent directly sent to the army for military service.And their training is different with China,they don't need to stand in the big sun JunZi, the U.S. military focused on students' practical ability.For students, the difficulty is to be reckoned with.

在这里不得不提到美国最著名的军事院校之一西点军校。西点军校是美国第一所军事学校,位于纽约州西点。该校是美国历史悠久的军事学院之一,建立于1802年。
 It is necessary to mention west Point, one of the most famous military academies in the United States. West Point is the first military academy in the United States, located in West Point, New York,founded in 1802.

这所院校人才辈出,培养出了两位总统,许多美军名将均是该校的毕业生,并在美国内战期间有55场战役的指挥官都毕业于这所军事学院,被称为“美国将军的摇篮”。
 The school has produced two presidents. Many U.S. military stars graduated from the school. Commanders in 55 battles during the American Civil War graduated from the school, which is called "the cradle of American generals".

我们再看看邻国俄罗斯学生的军训情况。俄罗斯军训时的培训主要分为三个方面。
 Let's look at the military training of Russian students in neighboring countries.The training during military training in Russia is divided into three main areas.

第一个是军事爱国主义教育 ,包括学习和了解军队光荣历史、军事基础知识、观看爱国主义电影等。
 The first is military and patriotic education, which includes learning and understanding the glorious history of the military, military basics, and watching patriotic movies.

第二个方面是军事技能实际操练。你没有听错,你确实可以接触到真枪实弹!包括学习队列、组装和拆卸自动步枪、实弹射击、消防、医疗救护、防辐射、化学及生物保护等。听起来是不是很振奋人心呢?
 The second area is actual military skills drills.You heard me right, you do get access to live ammunition!This includes learning about formation, assembling and disassembling automatic rifles, live fire, firefighting, medical care, radiation, chemical and biological protection, and more.Doesn't that sound exciting?

第三是体育锻炼。包括我们所熟知的负重长跑、越野训练,以及参加足球篮球等各种体育运动。
 The third is physical exercise.These include the well-known long-distance running with weights, cross-country training, and participation in various sports such as football and basketball.

这些学生可以根据自己在军事训练中的成绩获得津贴,毕业之后等于同时读完了大学和服完了兵役,还可以得到“中尉”军衔。
 These students receive a stipend based on their military training and, upon graduation, are considered to have completed both university and military service, and are also awarded the rank of "lieutenant".

最近,据俄罗斯媒体报道,政府准备建造九十三所高校军事训练中心来提高学生的军事素养。
 Recently, according to Russian media reports, the Government is preparing to build ninety-three university military training centres to improve the military literacy of students.

这样可以保证训练更多的军官,他们在和平年代拥有文化知识,一旦战争爆发可以拥有军事技能。
This would ensure the training of more officers, who would have the cultural knowledge in peacetime and the military skills should war break out.

而在韩国,法律规定国内每一个成年男性只要检查合格必须服兵役,任何人不得违抗,就算你是明星也不例外,这也是韩国娱乐圈不时传出某某明星参军新闻的原因。
 In South Korea, the law stipulates that every adult male must serve in the military as long as he passes the examination, and no one can disobey him, even if he is a star. This is also the reason why the news of such and such stars joining the army comes out from time to time in the entertainment circle of South Korea.

为了以后更好参军服役,韩国从小学生开始就非常注重军事训练,常常用各种严酷的方法来锻炼学生的意志力和身体素质。
 In order to better serve in the army in the future, South Korean students pay great attention to military training from the beginning, often use a variety of harsh methods to exercise the students' willpower and physical quality.

在韩国安山岛的训练营内,每年的12月份,都会有来自韩国各地的中小学生在这里军训,这些学生赤膊在雪地中进行军事训练。零下十几多度的严寒中,这些稚气未脱的小孩们脱掉上衣,让稚嫩的皮肤暴露在寒风中。
 Every December, elementary and middle school students from across South Korea train shirtless in the snow at the camp in Ansan, South Korea. More than ten degrees below zero in the cold, the children take off the jacket, let the childishness of the skin exposed in the cold wind.

他们还会将积雪涂抹在身体上。这个过程大概要坚持半个小时,他们尖叫着,大吼着,但没有退缩的,他们磨练自己的意志,强健自己的体魄。
 It also smears snow on the body. The process lasted about half an hour. They screamed and roared, but they did not shrink back. They honed their will and strengthened their bodies.

泅渡,游泳,越野,在泥浆中摸爬滚打,在寒风中赤膊相对,他们常常被弄得青一块紫一块的,对于这种近乎严酷的训练,韩国的学生和家长又有着怎样的态度呢?
 Swimming, cross-country, crawling in the mud and facing each other shirtless in the cold wind. What attitude do Korean students and their parents have towards this kind of almost rigorous training?

因为,在韩国大多数父亲都曾经服过兵役,对于军训始终保持一种赞成的态度。
Because, in South Korea, most of the fathers had served in the military, the military training has always maintained a favorable attitude.

韩国新闻评论员南黎明表示,“韩国的父母都注重培养孩子不怕吃苦的精神,因此他们很支持孩子去参加军训,甚至有的家庭会自费让孩子去参加军事夏令营。”
 South Korean parents focus on cultivating their children's spirit of not fearing hardship, so they are very supportive of their children's participation in military training. Some families even let their children attend military summer camps at their own expense," said South Korean news commentator Nam Liming.

当然,韩国的学生也会以参加过军事训练营或者在某个部队参加过军训为荣,在他们心中军训是一件很荣耀的事情。
 Of course, South Korean students are also proud of having participated in military training camps or military training in a certain army. Military training is a very honorable thing in their mind.

今天的节目到这里就要结束啦,不知道这些国家的军训方式有没有让你产生耳目一新的感觉呢?
最近天气温度会逐渐降低,还伴随有降雨,在坚持做好防疫工作的同时,同学们也不要忘记添衣保暖带雨伞呀!
现在插播一条抗疫小贴士:厢式电梯中空气的流通性差,建议乘坐时佩戴口罩。电梯楼层按钮上可能残留飞沫和病毒,有接触感染的可能;按楼层按钮时,最好不直接使用手指,如果用手指,在触碰按钮后避免接触身体其他部位,出电梯后勤洗手。

 


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